Chitika

Saturday, February 28, 2015

History of Plastic Surgery, Rhinoplasty and Other Important Medical and Surgical Operations


History of Plastic Surgery, Rhinoplasty and Other Important Medical and Surgical Operations

Some people underwent plastic surgery or series of surgeries in order to look handsome and beautiful.
Do you know how long plastic surgery and rhinoplasty have been in existence? Scroll down and find out when and where they invented these popular medical operations including some other popular medical and surgical operations.

1. Plastic Surgery

Is your nose real? How about those lips? Are you just beautiful because of plastic surgery? Many controversial celebrities and famous people are considered beautiful due to plastic surgery. Would you believe if I’ll say that “plastic surgery” had been around as early as 6th century BCE (Before Common Era)? Whew, that is about 2,500 years ago. It is believed to have started by Sushruta, who is regarded as the father of Indian surgery.
The most common type of surgery is aesthetic or cosmetic surgery but there are also other types such as microsurgery, reconstructive surgery and hand surgery
A British sailor named Walter Yeo is considered to be the first person to benefic plastic surgery in 1917. The first “female-to-male” sex reassignment surgery was carried out in 1946.
2. Rhinophlasty


Due to geographical effect, human beings from different part of the world, human races have different physical appearance. The color of the skin, eyes, shape of the nose and eyes differ significantly. For people with very large nose, they want to reduce its size while some people with small nose want to enlarge it. Rhinoplasty has been practiced as early as 6th century BCE. This medical or surgical operation is commonly referred to as nose reshaping or a nose job.

3. Cataract Surgery


Eye diseases such as cataract can cause blindness. We all know for a fact that the most relevant sense of organ a person must possess is the sense of seeing. One of the commonest eye problems worldwide is cataract. Cataract Surgery has been practiced since the 6th century BCE. This surgical operation is the removal of the natural lens of the eye.

4. Dental Bridge


One of the best assets a person should posses in order to be considered physically beautiful are good set of teeth. A person, especially those who are exposed in public, will surely be the subject of ridicule if he/she lacks a tooth or more. In order to avoid embarrassment and ridicule, dentures such as dental bridge, was invented. Dental Bridge, which is also known as “fixed partial denture”, was invented in the 6th century BCE in Etruria. Thanks to the Etruscans of Italy.





What If Sundials Were Invented in the Southern Hemisphere?

What If Sundials Were Invented in the Southern Hemisphere?

Sundials are early inventions of human beings for time purposes. The length of the shadow of the stone called obelisk and shadow clock determines the time of the day. According to history, the earliest sundials were invented by the Egyptians and Babylonians. Egypt happens to be located in Northern Hemisphere. What is the relevance of this?



The sundial is the basis for the creation of the clock; hence, we have the terms clockwise and counter-clockwise. Clockwise is the movement of the hour, minute and second hands from left to right in circular motion while counter-clockwise is the movement of the hour, minute and second hands from right to left in circular motion.

The hands of the clock rotate clockwise because sundial, which is the forerunner of the clock, was invented in the Northern Hemisphere. If sundials were invented in Australia or anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere, the clock’s hands movement should have been counter-clockwise or anti-clockwise.


Can You Consider East and West Directions Permanent

Countries in the Pacific and Asia are considered the “East” while countries in Europe and the Americas are regarded as the “West”. Can you consider east and west directions permanent? No, east and west directions are not permanent; east and west can interchange depending on your position on Earth. Only two directions are permanent and could not interchange or reverse – north and south directions.



When the Sun rises in the Philippines which is located in the East, the United States is geographically located on the West. But when the Sun rises in the United States, the Philippines and the Pacific is geographically located west of the US. Therefore, there is no permanent east and west directions. East and west can change position depending on your position on Earth.



On this map, the Philippines is on the east and the US is on the west. When the earth rotates, they will change position, Us will be on the east and the Philippines will be on the west.

However, in smaller scale, in a particular place, east and west can be permanent. For instance, if you are standing in front of your house facing north – the house on your left is on the east while the house on your left is on the west. If these two houses changed position, you better wake up because you are having a nightmare.




Does the Sun Really Rises and Sets?

Does the Sun Really Rises and Sets?

We often hear from broadcasters, newscasters and weather forecaster the statement “the sun will rise at 5:45 this morning and sunset will be at 6: 03 this afternoon”. The question is “does the sun really rises and sets?”



When the Sun is viewed from the Earth, it looks like that it rises in the east and sets in the west. It appears to us that the Sun is rotating around us when in fact, it is not. Astronomically speaking, it is the Earth that rotates around the Sun. so, it is not correct to say that there is Sunrise or Sunset because the Sun does not come from underground to rise above. It does not also go to an underground to set and rise again.




Technically, there is no sunrise and sunset but people are already used to these terms.  Sunrise and sunset are the common terms being used for the daily appearance and disappearance of the Sun. Some suggested that the terms "sunsight" and "sunclipse" should be used instead of sunrise and sunset.

The Oddest-Looking Frogs You’ll Ever See

The Oddest-Looking Frogs You’ll Ever See

Some frogs are lovely and colorful but some frog species are awfully bizarre in appearance. Here are some of the most peculiar-looking frogs in the world.

Indian Balloon Frog


The Indian Balloon Frog is one of the oddest-looking frogs in the world. It has a broad body that resembles a globe but its mouth is very narrow. It has very short front legs and this can be found in India. Its binomial name is Uperodon globulosus.

Myersiella microps

This bizarre-looking frog known as Myersiella microps is a frog species that looks like a hairless rat. It has a long snout and can be found in Brazil in South America. This threatened species due to loss of habitat lives in tropical and subtropical forests.

Cape Rain Frog


The Cape Rain Frog, scientifically known as Breviceps gibbosus is another peculiar-looking species of frog. It can be found in South Africa and is threatened by loss of habitat. It is also commonly known as Giant Rain Frog.


World’s Most Popular and Remarkable Airlines and Their Airplanes

World’s Most Popular and Remarkable Airlines and Their Airplanes 

1. Qantas Airlines


One of the world’s most famous airlines is Qantas. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline from “land down under”.

Airplane: Airbus A380-800 and others
Flag carrier: Australia
Nickname: The Flying Kangaroo
Headquarters/Base: Qantas Centre, City of Botany Bay, Sydney, New South Wales
Hubs: Sydney Airport, Melbourne Airport
Notable features:
QANTAS means Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services
It is the largest airline of Australia.
It is the world’s oldest continuously operated airline.
It is the second oldest airline in the world.

2. Virgin Atlantic Airways



One of the most notable airlines in the world that travels in the Atlantic is Virgin Atlantic Airways. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airlines.

Airplane: Airbus: Boeing 747-400 and others
Country: United Kingdom
Headquarters/Base: Crawley, West Sussex, England
Hub: Gatwick Airport
Owners: Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Group and Singapore Airlines

3. Philippine Airlines


One of the most famous airlines in the Southeast Asian region is Philippine Airlines Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline of the “pearl of the orient”.

Airplane: Airbus A320-214 and others
Flag carrier: Philippines
Headquarters/Base: Philippine National Bank Financial Center in Pasay City
Hubs: Ninoy Aquino International Airport of Manila and Mactan-Cebu International Airport of Cebu City
Notable features:
Founded in 1949, it is the first and oldest commercial airline in Asia operating under its original name.
It serves 19 destinations in the Philippines and 24 destinations worldwide.

4. British Airways


One of the world’s most famous airlines is British Airways. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airlines.

Airplane: Airbus A319 and others
Flag carrier: United Kingdom
Headquarters/Base: Waterside, London
Hub: London Heathrow Airport
Notable features:
It is the largest airline in the United Kingdom.

5. Japan


One of the world’s most popular and remarkable airlines is Japan Airlines. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline of the “land of the rising sun”.

Airplane: Airbus: JAL Cargo Boeing 747-400F and others
Flag carrier: Japan
Headquarters/Base: Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan
Hubs: Narita International Airport, Tokyo International Airport and others
Notable features:
It is a member of the Oneworld airline alliance.
It serves 220 destinations in 35 countries.

6. Canada


One of the world’s most notable airlines is Air Canada. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline of one of the largest countries in the world.

Airplane: Airbus: Boeing 777-333ER and others
Flag carrier: Canada
Notable features:
It is Canada’s largest airline and the world’s 9th largest.
Founded in 1936, it has 178 destinations worldwide.

7. France

One of the world’s most famous airlines because of its uniquely shape and high-speed airplanes is Air France. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline of the most visited country in the world.

Airplane: Concorde and others
Flag carrier: France
Headquarters/Base: Tremblay-en-France
Hubs: Paris-Charles De Gaulle Airport and others
Notable features:
It is one of the largest airlines in the world.
It serves 35 destinations in France and 156 destinations in 91 countries.
In 2011, it carried 59.5 million passengers.

8. Germanwings


One of the most remarkable low-cost airlines in the world is the Germanwings. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline.

Airplane: Airbus: Airbus A319 and others
Country: Germany
Headquarters/Base: Cologne City
Hub: Cologne Bonn Airport, Stuttgart Airport and Berlin-Schonefeld Airport 
Owner: Lufthansa
Notable features:
The airline has a network of about 85 destinations.
It is remarkable as a low-cost airline

9. Ryanair


One of the world’s airlines notable as a low-cost airline is the Ryanair of Ireland. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline.

Airplane: Airbus: Boeing 737-800 and others
Country: Ireland
Nickname: Nykoping
Headquarters/Base: Dublin Airport and London Stansted Airport
Hub: Dublin Airport
Notable features:
It is noted as a low-cost airline.
It operates more than 290 Boeing 737-800 aircraft.

10. Aeroflot


One of the world’s most largest and popular airlines in the world is Aeroflot. Here’s a list of the most important information about this airline of the world’s largest country in terms of land area.

Airplane: Airbus A319-100 and others
Flag carrier: Russian Federation
Headquarters: Moscow, Russia
Hub: Sheremetyevo International Airport
Notable features:
It has a network of 97 cities in 48 countries.
It is one of the oldest airlines in world (1923).
It is the largest airline of the Russian Federation.


A Modern Approach For Teachers to Resolve Unfinished Lessons

A Modern Approach For Teachers to Resolve Unfinished Lessons 

            One of the most common problems encountered by teachers from all subject areas is the inability to finish all the lessons in a year due to various reasons such as school activities and programs; calamities such as floods, flash floods, typhoons, earthquakes and many others. One of the most notable implications of this is the students’ low performance in RAT, NAT and other related assessment examinations.

            If you are having problem finishing all your lessons before the end of each grading period or before the end of the school year, you must conceptualized and create a modern approach in resolving it. Since Internet is the fastest way and the widest source of information, it can be utilized as a solution to the problem. A practical and innovative approach should be applied by every teacher to address the problem. One approach I thought that could resolve or minimize the problem is the implementation of a so-called “FACEBOOK KO, PANOORIN MO”. This is a very practical approach because Internet can be access through Internet connection in schools, Internet cafés in the community, Wi-Fi connections, broadband, USB connection such as Tattoo and others.

            This approach will be conducted by posting on Facebook a power point presentation of all the last lessons that are not usually tackled due to the above-mentioned reasons.

            Teachers in a particular subject in a particular year level should collaborate in producing or creating the power point presentation or mini-film. The effectiveness of this approach is more likely successful if the school has its own Audio-visual room or Computer laboratory with internet access. Without these facilities, the teacher must produce his/her own Laptop equipped with either Globe tattoo or Smart broadband so that this approach can be realized. For the students who are not able to view the power point presentation published on Facebook can still access it through internet cafés available in the community. An evaluation at the end of the show will be accomplished by the students.

            Through this approach, lessons for 3-5 days can be shown in a minimum of one hour or less, thus, covering all the lessons which are not usually taken due to the above-mention factors. In addition, the presentation should be break down into segments with proper evaluation/assessment for each segment.

            If this approach is properly implemented, students will have better and higher performances in assessment examinations such as RAT (Regional Achievement Test) NCAE (National College Assessment Examination), NAT (National Achievement Test) and others.



Chitika